The demography domain includes overarching measures of health status such as life expectancy, as well as population age structure, deprivation and ethnicity to provide important contextual background to the other domains.
Life expectancy highlights differences in health status between the populations of different geographic areas.
The 'shape' of the age profile of a population will determine the balance of demands made upon the healthcare system.
Ethnicity is important in considering health status. Inequalities in health risk factors and health outcomes are well described for Māori and Pacific peoples compared with the total New Zealand population.
Socio-economic deprivation is linked to poorer health outcomes and in some instances limited access to health care. There is a long-standing literature on the subject, which recognises the many ways in which lower socioeconomic status is linked to poorer outcome (eg, poorer education limiting health literacy, fewer financial resources limiting choice of healthy food and low availability of high quality housing).